corvinus_quint

Pinks and Greens.

В Армии США задумались о смене повседневной униформы. Опять.

После окончания Второй Мировой Армия США продолжала носить униформу, неформально называемую "Pinks and greens":

"Pinks" - это брюки, "Greens" - кители.
Форма для рядовых и сержантов, в отличие от офицерской, имела китель и брюки одного цвета.












И она им не нравилась. После войны престиж формы упал:

As early as 1946, short months after millions of veterans returned to civilian life from fighting World War II, street cleaners, trashmen, garbage collectors, and tramps began to appear dressed in parts of uniforms, the type still being worn by our soldiers. ... Because Army clothing was inexpensive, easy to obtain, and most suitable for wear in the elements, anyone who spent a great deal of his time outdoors made it a point to visit the local surplus sales store for his clothing needs. Hunters, fishermen, construction workers, and other classes of outside workers took on the appearance of soldiers equipped for field duty. ... Tremendous stocks of surplus clothing and equipment were dumped on the civilian market by the War Assets Corporation for consumer, capital, and producer goods. The War Department announced in February of 1946 that the Surplus Property Administration had directed some $40,000,000 worth of clothing and materials, which had been declared surplus be turned over to the War Assets Corporation for disposal in this way.
Prisons and workhouses purchased great quantities of shoes, trousers, shirts, sweaters, and dungarees for their inmates at great savings. Road gangs from these institutions seen repairing the highways took on the appearance of Army fatigue details under armed guard, which in many instances required explanation to irate citizens who witnessed such scenes. Much discredit has been heaped upon the Army as a result of pictures of apprehended thugs or bandits wearing some part of an Army uniform. The immediate conclusion of the public is that another ex-soldier has gone bad-the fault of the Army. Insult is sometimes added to injury when a local ”badboy,” after being incarcerated for robbing some rich widow, is pictured in an ”Ike” jacket and has never been in the Army, but is identified as an ex-GI. Police teletype lookout reports, of which there are approximately 100 per day received by police headquarters in the Washington area, indicate that one out of every eight descriptions of a male thug to be picked up describes him as wearing some item of an Army uniform-an implication that the individual was, or is, a soldier. The soldier, being constantly confronted with the debauching of his uniform-a court-martial offense in his case-soon loses pride in wearing it. His prestige is gradually being degraded because of the contempt shown the uniform.
Prestige and morale of the soldier can be upgraded considerably if a new uniform, which is attractive and military looking, is selected and manufactured in place of  the present drab OD’s. Prestige of the soldier reflects on the service as a whole. During national emergencies he is held in the greatest esteem by the public and Congress. But when his country seems to be out of crucial and immediate danger, and budgets must be trimmed, he becomes a target for the knife wielders. Since 1946 this has been one of the biggest stopgaps to the adoption of a new uniform for the Army. Prestige and morale, the basis for building and maintaining a spirited, well-trained Army, have suffered as a result, in addition to the fact that the Army apparently has no exclusive rights to the wearing of the uniform.

Сначала попытались сделать парадную "синюю" форму так же и повседневной, но цена была неподъёмна. Решение найдено в принятии новой формы тёмно-зелёного цвета:

The color of the proposed new uniform, its most striking characteristic, is a neutral shade of deep greenish-grey, selected after a comprehensive study of a wide range of possible colors for an Army uniform. Careful study was given to the blues, greens, greys, browns, and other colors having potential desirability in a military uniform. It was desired to obtain a distinctive military color which would not be confused with the uniforms of mail carriers, service station attendants, policemen, movie theatre ushers, and other service personnel, and yet would be attractive and give the wearer a well-dressed appearance. In other words, it was desired to obtain a color which a man in civil life would regard favorably and would like to wear, and yet not a shade which every retail store in the country sold every day in the week in civilian clothing. Furthermore, it was necessary to select a neutral shade that would not clash with colors of trim and decorations. The selection of the color was based upon a fundamental policy which has been in the making since the end of World War II, involving the separation of combat clothing from general wear or service uniforms. The attempt to make one uniform do for both jobs, which the Army had followed in the past, required compromises which have provided neither a satisfactory service uniform nor combat garment, while at the same time detracting from the military appearance of the uniform and the soldier’s respect for it–a vital factor in maintaining good morale and pride of organization.

Подробная история этого события.


После этого "зелёная форма" без каких-либо кардинальных изменений будет оставаться повседневной формой американского военнослужащего на протяжении шестидесяти лет.

В то время как "синяя" форма, ведущая свою родословную ещё из восемнадцатого века, но главным образом отдающая дань памяти войскам Севера, будет оставаться формой парадной, на фотографиях мелькавшей нечасто:












Были ещё опциональные мундиры белого цвета и цвета хаки, но о них сейчас не будем.


Всё поменялось в 2008, когда было решено, что "синяя форма" станет так же и повседневной. Причина — "зелёная" недостаточно престижна:

The service replaced its dress green uniform after 61 years of service in 2014 with a version of the Army dress blue uniform — the Army Service Uniform. “We got rid of the dress greens, and we went to the dress blues or Army Service Uniform,” Dailey said. “It was a great decision by the leadership at that time; I fully supported it.” The ASU is a “phenomenal uniform which dates back to the origins of the United States Army” ...
However, two uniforms are needed, and they should point to specific and universally-identifiable points in history. The Army Service Uniform sort of does this. The old, green “Class A” uniform did not. The Class A uniform died with a whimper and not a bang because it never symbolized one discrete point in history. It was the culmination of a thousand marginal tweaks, a zombie uniform that kept ambling along. The Army Green Uniform came out of nowhere in 1954. It stumbled through our post-Vietnam nadir, through the transition to the all-volunteer “Let the Army Join You” era, and grew greener and more synthetic as it went. By 1979, it began its terminal decline, not quite as a green polyester leisure suit, and not quite an obvious and distinct uniform of the U.S. Army. It represented the Army more because we said it did than for any historical symbolism it ever contained. In contrast, the gold trim and mismatched blue hues of the current ASU represented an Army that saved the Union from being torn asunder. Throughout the 19th Century, in the dust of the Great Plains, it safeguarded our republic and its frontiers as our nation grew into the powerhouse it is today.

В 2015-ом году переходный период закончился и "синяя форма" стала единственной допущенной для повседневной и парадной носки.


И не прошло и двух лет, как заговорили (главным образом сержант-майор Армии Д. Дейли) о необходимости новой повседневной формы, отличающейся от "синей" прежде всего цветом; в то время как "синяя" вернётся к своей традиционной функции парадки. И говорят они, прежде всего, о возвращении к форме из тех времён, когда Америка была великой.

На этот раз "розовые" брюки будут у всех.
И эта разноцветность брюк и кителя выглядит жутко старомодно - как и в "синей форме".
Старомодности добавляют и мягкие фуражки.

Причин для этого две. Первая - "синяя форма", всё же, слишком пафосная для повседневной носки:

The ASU is a “phenomenal uniform which dates back to the origins of the United States Army,” but it may be too formal of a uniform for everyday office wear, he said. The blue uniform was always optional for formal occasions when the Army had the dress greens ...
Critics incorrectly evaluate pinks and greens against the ASU, which fills the role of a dress uniform well and that of a service uniform poorly. The pinks and greens should be evaluated against the complete absence of a durable, daily-wear service uniform. The Army always tends to look comparatively “one layer of etiquette” off because it has historically had poor choices to choose from.
On special occasions, when we don our mismatched, 19th Century blues, we represent a time when hundreds of thousands of our very teammates did just that to preserve and grow our republic. Similarly, wearing pinks-and-greens will remind allies and adversaries daily that the world order as we know it was hard-won, forged, and is sustained by the greatest team on earth: the United States Army.

Но главное здесь — борьба за престиж:

“We wanted a uniform that we could re-identify with the American public that was significant in the American public’s eye of the sense of pride in their Army,” Dailey said. “That’s why we went back in history and said, ‘What was the last time when there was this sense of pride and true identification … based upon their uniform?’ And that’s when automatically we both agreed it was Pinks and Greens during World War II. “It was a very symbolic statement in America when you saw these young men and women coming back to and from war … wearing that very distinctive olive drab jacket with pinkish hue pants uniform.”
Based on Sergeant Major of the Army's interest and his belief that the uniform would reconnect today's Soldier with the history of the Army, an exclusive Army Times survey was sent out to its readers. The survey received a favorable response from more than 70 percent of the Soldiers supporting the return of the historic World War II uniform.
Why is this important to the Army? The reintroduction of this uniform is an effort to create a deeper understanding of, and connection to the Army in communities where awareness of the Total Army needs to increase. The Army believes this high-quality uniform will strengthen pride, bolster recruiting and enhance readiness.
Pinks and greens are the must-have throwback uniform of the U.S. Army at its finest: the 1945 world championship team that left it all on the field in a nerve-wracking, seven-game slog that awes us even today.
Our Army has struggled with uniforms since the barefoot and threadbare days of Valley Forge. There is no better and no more American characterization of our Army than when it is dirty and underdressed, victorious in ill-fitting, mass-produced, torn puttees and fatigues. We were borne of rag-tag militias and were always meant to be a temporary mass of hastily-assembled farmhands and mechanics, raised in a democratic republic, unfamiliar with violence until the time would come to apply it skillfully and overwhelmingly before returning to the prosperity and new world order they fought to secure.

Идея набирает обороты и уже получила одобрение от НГШ Армии М. Милли. Готовятся и PEO Soldier и частники. Остаётся мало сомнений, что очередная повседневная форма Армии США будет воплощением престижа. Снова.


PS: Личное мнение — и стоило ли отказываться от прослужившей более полувека, и при этом выглядящей современно и по-военному зелёной формы? Вот он, настоящий iconic:

Теперь оденутся почти в то же самое по покрою и цвету, но обретут при этом повышенную духовность от коричневых штиблет и бежевых штанов.

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